Prisoners death records  







Mysterious death of Ibrahim Afa
Mysterious death of Abraham Tewelde

Liquidation in the ELF
index sitemap advanced






Crime committed against civilians by the ELF and EPLF during the armed struggle
Jebha and shaebia are the two sides of the same coin.
ELF (Jebha)
The Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a Shifta system

During the liberation struggle Eritrean people not only became the victims of the Ethiopian government but were also killed by the ELF and EPLF. The crimes against the Kunama people which is committed by the PFDJ is not new but has history go back before Idris Awate started the armed struggle.
The legacy of Hamid Idris Awate, to the Eritrean „Gedli“ (struggle), seen, experienced and analysed from the Kunama perspective The VKP/KAM: (September 30, 2009).
In the 1960s the Kunamas people became the first victim of the ELF leaders. According to
Yosef 2009, many houses with their inhabitants inside; men, women and children indiscriminately killed; entire fertile areas abandoned (later to be settled mainly by the Tigrignas), their cattle plundered and sold in Kessela; etc. Here is how the VK/ KAM team of the website puts it “To a very considerable number of Kunama, who had not only known Hamid Idris Awate personally, but they had also had to abandon their land and villages set ablaze by him and their entire cattle raided and sold in the market places of Kassala (Sudan), the news of this same Hamid Idris Awate, been chosen as the leader of a national liberation movement was not only very surprising but profoundly shocking. As a continuation of this atrocity, in the early sixties (1960s) and late seventies (1970s), started to conduct retaliatory activities against the Kunama people, burning Kunama villages, even with their inhabitants inside their huts. VKP/KAM (May 18, 2009) [About the background history of Hamid Idris Awate? October 30, 2012)

Was Awate a shifta? If yes, was Awate involved in criminal activities during his banditry life? Excrept from the Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a  Shifta system – part 2 and final.

Merhawi Kunfu in his article the Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a  Shifta system – part 2 and fina wrote

"As we can see from the public notice presented in part one, the answer is absolute yes that Awate was a shifta. Nobody can refute the fact that Awate was a shifta because the documents presented contain hard facts and evidence that prove so. I challenge anybody who denies this reality. It is well documented and well known that awate was a notorious shifta leader in the 1940s- 1950s. Even his family members and his is own community do not deny this. Among the Kunama, the whole kunama population know Awate as a shifta and criminal who killed and looted them. Anyone who wishes to know the truth about Awate can get the real information by interviewing the Kunama elders who witnessed Awate’s crimes with their own eyes. Awate was not only a shifta but he was a great a shifta leader. This means there were many armed men under his command who follow his commands and his instructions. Regarding the question of Awate’s involvement in crimes, the document provides us the answer in unequivocal manner that Awate had committed crimes -  no doubt about that. The document I have presented in part one however, does not provide us details of the nature of crimes Awate had committed because according to the public notice, Awate’s crimes were ‘already notified’ in prior notices to this notice. The public notice states that the crimes had been committed against the Eritrean people emphasizing that ‘the normal life of the people of Eritrea is continually being disrupted and {???} by the activities of the shifta bands. Merhawi concluded his article..."Actually, we can conclude that the Eritrean revolution was launched or planted by a shifta criminal and produced a shifta criminal system. This means we are harvesting what we planted. Read More

Ghirmay Yeibi in his article " Half a century of misery and with no end in sight which was posted to on 31 May 2012 also wrote, in response to that half a century ago Eritrea started an armed struggle led by Hamid Idris Awate, who was a local outlaw “shifta, engaged in cattle raiding and rustling.  Awate was a criminal and is well remembered by his victims the Kunamas (indigenous people living in south Western Eritrea) for committing atrocious crimes against them and the indiscriminate killing of women and children including infants and burning and razing of Kunama villages.  He was pardoned by the British Administration in Eritrea and given complete amnesty for his past crimes and allowed to return to his hometown, until upon request from the ELF (Eritrean Liberation Front) he turned his band of outlaws into the armed wing of the ELF. [Read more]

Furthermore Ghirmay Yeibio in his article Awate was a trigger happy ordinary outlaw (shifta): A hero of Fascist Benito Mussolini !!! Monday, 15 October 2012 wrote "Who was Hamid Idris Awate?  What was his history? Hamid Idris Awate was a simple outlaw (shifta).  An ordinary soldier entrusted with accomplishing a political goal charted out for him by ELF leadership in the Sudan.  He never interfered nor tried to influence the political decision of the front, nor did he have the analyzing capacity of what he was doing. He was politically ignorant and was glad to do what he was trained to do his whole life and which he knew best how to do i.e. killing and causing mayhem.

He was a trigger happy fascist loyalist who worked against the interests of the Eritrean people in particular and colonized Africans in General, who continued to fight the British forces, alongside Amedeo Guillet, to bring back fascist Italian rule to Eritrea even after Mussolini’s army had surrendered in East Africa to the allied forces.

He was a fascist loyalist who conducted a guerrilla war for 5 whole years for “a king, country and a people whom he never saw or knew”.  He was loyal Carabinieri who diligently worked to keep Eritreans under the yoke of Italian colonialism.  As a right hand man of the Italian administration he approved and enforced the racist and oppressive policy of Italy which confiscated around half of the land of Eritrea under the principles of state land “Terreno Demaniale”, particularly around western lowlands of Eritrea during his tenure as administrator.  He wanted to reinstate the Italian Fascist rule that dehumanized Eritreans using apartheid and segregation and continued to fight to bring back that system to East Africa for five whole years, until the end of the Second World War. read more

Tekeste Negash in his book Eritrea and Ethiopia The Federal Experience also briefly mentioned that there were three type of shifta ."The most notorious among these shifta was Hamid Idris Awate of Beni Amer origin. Idris Awate began his career in early 1942 and by 1948 his army may have numbered about 50. His main activity was to raid the Kunama and Baria people. In the middle of 1950, he participated in the clan feud between the Beni Amer and the adjoining districts of Hamassien, namely Liben and Anseba. Idris Awate was one of the three shifta leaders about whom the British were most concerned. In 1949 the BMA offered a considerable [Read more page 62]

መግለጺ ባሕቲ ሓደ መስከረም 2012ዝደልዩ ደቂ ዓዋተ ዘይደልዩ ከA ደቂ ትሽዓተ ብሄራት [ቤት ጽሕፈት ዜናን ሓበሬታን ዲምሓኩኤ መስከረም 01 2012]

.."ናይ Eድሪስ ዓዋተ ሃገራውነት (nationalism) ግን ኹሉ ኤርትራዊ ዝስማማዓሉ ዛEባ ኣይኮነን፡፡ ሽፍታ ስለ ዝነበረ ሃገራዊ ክብሃል ኣይግብAን ማለት ከA ቅኑE ኣይኮነን፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ሽፍታ ወይ ከA ጭውዝበለ Eሉልን ጸረ ህዝቢ ጸኒሑ ተቀይሩ ንሃገር ዝጠቅም ስራሕ Eንተፈጺሙ ንቅበሎ ጸጋ ስለ
ዝኾነ፡፡ ንሓደ ሃገራዊ Eንተ ብፍላጥ ወይ ከA ንሕነ ህዝቢታት ሃገር ንዝጨፍጨፈ ገበነኛ ከም ሃገራዊ ምቅባልን ምስ መዓልቲ ናጽነት ብምትEስሳር ነቶም ግዳያት ክስEስU ምግባር ግንናይ ገበን ገበን Eዩ፡፡ ሓምድ Eድሪስ ዓዋተ ኣብ ልEሊ ብሄር ኩናማ ዘብጽሖ ህልቂት ከቢድIዩ፡፡ ሓቂ ዶ ሓሶት ንምርግጋጹ’ውን መጽናEትን ግዜን ክወሃብ ድኣሉ ዝግባE Eምበር
ንሓደ ሸነኽ ንምኽሳብ ኣብዚ ናይ ገበን ታሪኽ ብምንጥልጣል ሓባራዊ ሃገራዊ ምርድዳE ኣብዘይበጸሕናዮ ጉዳይ ከም ናይ ኩሉ ኤርትራዊ ውራይ ጌርካ ምውሳድ Aብ ልEሊ መሰልዜጋታት ምEንዳር Iዩ።ዲሞክራሲያዊ ምንቅስቓስ ሓርነት ኩናማ ኤርትራ (ዲምሓኩኤ) ሓምድ Eድሪስ ዓዋተ AብልEሊ ብሄር ኩናማ ዘብጽሖ ህልቂት ካብ ዘይምፍላጥ ወይ ዓቕሚ ብምስኣን Aይኮነን ክሳብሕጂ ትም መሪጹ ዝጸንሐን፡ ሎሚ ከቃልሖ ዝመረጸውን ካብ ወትሩ ፉሉይ ዓቕሚ ስለዝረኸበን ስለዘዋህለለን ኣይኮነን፡፡ Eንታይ ድኣ ንቅሓት ሕብረተሰብ ኩናማን ሰዓብቱንAባላቱን Aብ ግምት ብምEታውን Aብ ሕሉፍ ታሪኽ ተንጠልጢሉ ነዚ ጉዳይ ቀዳማይAጀንዳ ቃልሲ ክገብር ስለዘይመረጸ ጥራይ Eዩ፡፡ ሓቂ ተቐቢሩ ስለዘይተርፍን ቅኑE ታሪኽመሰረት ቅኑE ሃገርን ህዝብን ምዃኑ ብምEማን ኣብ ጉዳይ ሃገራዊ ጅግንነታዊ ታሪኽ ሓምድ
Eድሪስ ዓዋተ ብስርዓት ህግደፍ ዝተጠጅA ተንኮልን ብዓቢ ድምጺ ክቃላሕ ዝጸንሐድራማታትን ቃልE ንምውጻE ሕልናዊ ግዴታና ምዃኑ ኣሕዋት ኤርትራውያን ክርድUናበዓል ሙሉE ተስፋ Iና።" Read more

Crime committed Against civilians by the ELF in the 1960s and 1970s
The late Barambars Sila Abel Fagi 1974+
The first Kunama SDO (Senior District Officer) of Barentu.
A man of courage and total dedication to and commitment for the welfare and well-being of his Kunama people
on whose behalf had to sacrifice his own life by falling victim of that ruthless Jebha command in the Kunama land. source
LT. Venanzio (Naite) Araia +1981. The late LT. Venanzio (Naite) Araia: One of the Kunama heroes, fallen victim, struggling against the recial hatred and discrimination against the Kunama people, perpetrated by the Jebha-Al-Teharir´s unit, operating in the Kunama land, from the early 1967 1982. source baden-kunama.comi

Alexander Naty in his reaech paper " potential conflict in the former Gash-Setit regine" states that the killing of two Kunama brothers by a Tigrinnya policeman in Shambakko in 1995 was a symbolic reminder of the historical animosity between the Kunams people and the Eritrea Liberation Front. During the early 1960s the ELF killed a Kunama man from the village of Taikanaba .[Read more]

The people of the Red Sea area were also among the first groups to be victims of ELF; although the people waited patiently [read more] In the 1960s the Red Sea Afar people also became victims of the ELF leaders, ccording to Afar Forum, many civilians mostly innocent children, the elderly and women were mass murdered and buried in a barbaric manner at a place called Nabro. That was the response the people got from the so called “liberators”. Afar Forum adds that. Some of the blind measures taken by the so called political groups are:-The Ramlo (Ar’anu) forced genocide in 1968 by ELF; The 1974 direct and indirect mass killings by ELF and The 1968 genocide by the EPLF in 1968 in a place called Bori Asela.Source Destructive strategies of the EPLF regime

In the 1960s there was a report of the ELF leadership crimes on highlanders. Megesteab (2005: 43) states that fifty Christian peasants were also executed at the behest of the ELF leadership . Another version of this story between 15 and 25 civilians were killed by the ELF in Shimbare, they were killed by vigilante off duty tegadelti of ELF, who were thought to be avenging after their village was burned by Ethiopian soldiers. (Araya 2005). However, the ELF leadership should be blamed for the death of civilians who were killed by the ELF fighters (tegadelti).

Year 1967, the nightmare at Karkasha village: where Jebha forces, burnt to the ground, half of Karkasha village, including this writer’s family house and property; beat up the inhabitants of Karkasha and labelling them as “jawasis” meaning spies. Deliberately they set fire in a house, killing all 7 members of the same family. By then Karkasha was not an Ethiopian garrison. In fact, on that fateful day, it was Jabha’s temporary “difa or trench” to ambush the Ethiopian mobile forces, on Shambako/Barentu line, to hit and run. So why did they burn the village, property and human lives? Well, just hatred, discrimination and racism. Read more

ብዕለት 20/11/1965 ዓ.ም. ድማ ሓንቲ “ብቐዳመይቲ ክፍሊ” እትፍለጥ፡ ብተጋዳላይ ማሕሙድ ዲናይ እትምራሕ ሓይሊ ተጋድሎ ሓርነት ኤርትራ (ተ.ሓ.ኤ.) ካብ ባርካ ተበጊሳ ናብ ቆሓይን ብምኻድ፡ ናብ ዓዲ ሓንስ ኣተወት።

ሰራዊት ተ.ሓ.ኤ (ጀብሃ) ናብ ዓዲ ሓንስ ምስ ኣተዉ፡ ብቐጥታ ነቲ ህዝቢ ኣኪቦም፡ መደረ ከስምዑ ጀመሩ። ሻቡ ሓው ሻምበል ኣሰፋ ስላምሳ ዚኾኑ፡ ባሻይ በርሀ ስላምሳ ዚተባህሉ ምስሌነ ዓዲ ብድድ ኢሎም፡ “ስምዑ እዞም ደቀይ፡ ንስኻትኩም እንታዎት እኹም? ናብዙ ዓድና መምጺእኹም ምኽንያትከ እንታይ እዩ?” ክብሉ ተወከሱዎም። መራሒ ኣታ ክፍሊ ተ.ጋ. ማሕሙድ ዲናይ፡ “ንሕና ጀብሃ ኣልታሓሪር ኣል ኤለትርያ” ኢና ንብሃል፤ ንኣኻትኩም ናጻ ከነወጽእ ድማ ኢና መጺእና” በሎም። እኩብ ህዝቢ ዓዲ ሓንስ፡ እተን “ጀብሃ ኣልታሓሪር ኣል ኤለትርያ” ዝብላ ናይ ቋንቋ ዓረብ ቃላት፡ ትርጉመን ስለ ዘይተረድኦ ትሒም ትሒም በለ።

ሻቡ ምስሌነ ዓዲ ዚነበሩ ባሻይ በርሀ ስላምሳ፡ “እሕሕ” ኢሎም ጎረሮኦም ድሕሪ ምጽራይ፡ “ስምዑ እዞም ደቀይ፡ ንሕና ደቂ ጋንዛይን ደማስን ደቂ ኣድከመ-ምልጋእ እና። ኣብ ትሕቲ እግዚኣብሄር ኣምላኽና ኴንና ከዓ ኣብ ሓቅን ፍትሕን ዝተመስረተን እንምርሓሉን ናትና ሕግን ናትና ባይቶን ኣሎና፣ በዙይ እናተዳነናን እናተመራሕናን ከዓመ ምስ ኩሉ ህዝቢ ብሰላም እንነብር ሓረስቶት እና። ስለዙይ ንሕና ፈታዊ’ምበር ጸላኢ የብልናን። ኣብ መሬትናን ዓድናን መጺኡ ዘሸግረና ሓይሊ ስለ ዘየለ ከዓ ብረትን ሓውን ኣየድልየናን እዩ። ስለዙይ፡ ንሎሚ ሽሻይና ተቛዲስኩም ኣብ ዓድና ውዒልኩም ሕደሩ፡ ጽባሕ ንግሆ ግን ካብዙ ቦታና ናብ ዝመጻእኩሞ ብሰላም ውጹልና!” በሉዎም።

ብድሕሪ’ዚ መራሒ እታ ሓይሊ፡ ነዚ ዝስዕብ ሕቶ ኣቕረበ፥ “ቅድሚ ክልተ ሰሙን ኣብዚ ከባቢ ናይ ተዂሲ ምቅይያራት ተጌሩ ነይሩ፣ ብዛዕባ’ዚ እንታይ ትፈልጡ?” ኪብል ተወከሶም። ሻቡ ሓደ ሽማግለ ካብቲ እኩብ ህዝቢ ብድድ ኢሎም፡ “እወ፡ ኣብ መንጎ ሰራዊት መንግስትን ገለ ዘይንፈልጦም ዕጡቓትን ኣብ በራቒት ዝጀመረ ረመጽ፡ ክሳብ’ዙ በረኻ ዓድና ልሒሙ ነሩ፡ ኣብ መወዳእትኡ ግን እቶም ዕጡቓት ሓደ ምዉት ገዲፎም ሃዲሞም ከይዶም፡” ክብሉ ምስ መለሱ፡ ሰራዊት ተ.ሓ.ኤ. ሰላሕ ኢሎም ካብቲ ዓዲ ብምውጻእ፡ ናብ በረኻታት እቲ ዓዲ ገጾም ተዓዝሩ፤ ህዝቢ ድማ በቲ ፍጻመ ንሓድሕዱ እናዕለለን እናዘተየን ነናብ ቤቱ ፋሕ በለ።

ንጽባሒቱ ዕለት 21 ሕዳር 1965 ዓ.ም. ወጋሕታ ግን ኣብ ዓዲ ሓንስ ብሃንደበት ኣውያትን ዋጭዋጭታን ተሰምዐ። ሓይሊ ማሕሙድ ዲናይ፡ 130 ዝኾኑ ዕጡቓት ሒዛ ናብ ዓዲ ሓንስ ብምምላስ፡ ን36 ሰባት ብግፍዒ ቀተለት። ንምስሌነ ዓዲ ባሻይ በርሀ ስላምሳ ድማ ምስ ሻዱሻይ ርእሶም ናብ ማይ ጐርዞ ዝብሃል ቦታ ወሲዶም ምስ ጸጋይ ዝብሃል ወዶም ድሕሪ ምቕታል፡ ርእሲ ባሻይ በርሀ ስላምሳ ቆሪጾም ሒዞሞ ከዱ።

ኣብቲ ህልቂት ኣቶ ሃይለ ስላምሳ ዚተባህሉ ሓዎም ንባሻይ በርሀ ስላምሳ፡ በረምበራስ በራኺ፡ ኣቶ ሃይለ በራኺ፡ ኣቶ ኣየለ በራኺን ኣቶ መሓሪ በራኺን ዝተባህሉ ኣርባዕተ ኣሕዋት ደቂ ሓብቶም ንባሻይ በርሀን እውን ተቐትሉ። ኣውያት ዝሰምዑ፡ ኣብ ጎደቦ ዓዲ ሓንስ ዝርከቡ ዓድታት፡ ደወል ቤተ-ክርስትያን ወቒዖም ብጉያ ክረድኡ ናብ ዓዲ ሓንስ ተኣከቡ። ገለ ካብቶም ናብ ዓዲ ሓንስ ገጾም ዝጎየዩ ጎረባብቲ ዓድታት ድማ ናብ ዓዲ ሓንስ ቅድሚ ምእታዎም ሬሳ ሽዱሽተ ሰባት ኣብ መገዲ ወዲቑ ረኸቡ። በቲ ፍጻመውን ኣዝዮም ሰንበዱን ረዓዱን! ርእሲ ባሻይ በርሀ ስላምሳ እውን ብድሕሪኡ ንበይና ኣብ በረኻ ወዲቓ ብጓሶት ተረኺባ፡ ተኣርያ ናብ ዓዲ መጸት!

ተጋደልቲ ጀብሃ ብተወሳኺ፡ 340 ከብቲ፡ 96 ኣእዱግ፡ ኣርባዕተ ኣፍራስ፡ ሽዱሽተ ኣባቕል፡ ናይ ዓዲ ሓንስ ዘሚቶም ብምውሳድ ኣብ ዕዳጋታት ከሰላ ሓረጁወን። ገለ ክፋል ናይ ዓዲ ሓንስ እውን ብሓዊ ኣቃጸሉዎ! እዚ ግፍዕታት’ዚ ክፍጸም ከሎ፡ ሻምበል ኣሰፋ ስላምሳ ዝርከቦም ገለ ደቂ ዓዲ ሓንስ፡ ኣብ ኣድያቦ ኣብ ማሕረስ ስለ ዝነበሩ ነቲ ጭካነ ዝመልኦ ግፍዒ ኣይተኻፈሉዎን። ኣማስያኡ ናብ ዓዶም ምስ ተመልሱ ግን እቲ ዘሐዝን ፍጻመ ተፈጺሙ ጸንሖም። read more

Ghebrehiwet Haile wrote on facebook comment, Thank you. I remember ELF executed 24 innocent civilian and burned the village Adi Hanse Quahyne Seraye 1967. ELF, EPLF they were all killer. Remember how many privately owned vehicles were stolen country infrastructure was destroyed by those so called freedom fighters. They were unfitted to lead at all . What do you expect for these thieves from day one. look what did Eritrean people got at the end only ever seen misery and death that is all. My best Wish to Eritrean people.

Merhawi Kunfu in his article the Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a  Shifta system – part 2 and fina also wrote

"The ELF committed genocide crimes against the innocent Christian Tigrigna right from the beginning of the armed struggle. Many villages and properties in Akeleguzay and Seraye such as Qohain were destroyed and looted. Many Christian peasants and traders were murdered in mass only for being Christians. I myself have lost a relative in the mass murder of 49 innocent peasants committed by the ELF in July 1967 in Shimbare, near Tokobya"

Furthermore, according to Human Rights Watch 1991:48, in 1971, 52 civilian villagers were burned to death in their huts in a village name Debre Sila by the ELF for non-payment of the ELF demands (Human Rights Watch1991:48). There was also another story on March7, 1971, the ELF plundered the village of Halib Menal, stealing many cattle, after the villagers had killed two ELF fighters while resisting an ELF attempt to occupy the village two day before. Individuals who failed to protect ELF property entrusted to them were also summarily executed.

There was a similar story about the atrocity against Ato Haile by the ELF at Wutuh in Summer (kiremti) 1971.
According to the eye witness, Ato Haile (Chieka Adi - Village Maaya), was shot down, in front of elders forcibly gathered, at a neighboring village Wutuh (where he was hiding as he could not meet their excessive request for money and other immoral demands). They ignored the elders appeal to set him free, by pledging them he would come up with their demands should he is given more time. At the time, they terrorized the gathered elders saying "Deki halima, kab Tub adetatom tementilom teharidom, nisikhum dima kemzi kegatimekum iyu

In 1975 there was also a story about 12 youths from Adi-Kehei area who had a plan to join the Front were wrongly killed as a spies by the ELF. Among those youths who were killed by the ELF:
1.Indemyze Mohammed
2 Hagos Ibrahim was known as wdi Ibrahim Nur, the owner of a shop in Adikehi.

Furthermore, in 1976 there was a report of the execution of civilians by the ELF at Adi Aret village. According to the eyewitness, more than 10 civilians were wrongly killed as spies by the ELF in one day. He describes the way of their execution as followings. The victims were ordered to dig their own graves, thereafter they were blindfolded and stood on the edge of the graves before they were executed. After they were executed by firing squad their bodies were buried by the villagers from orders they received from ELF fighters. This was done deliberately to terrorise the villagers. There were many stories of atrocities against civilians by the ELF like these mentioned in the 1970s. Both the atrocities of 1975 and 1976 which were mentioned above took place in administrative Unit 10 (Akele-Guzai) where Seyoum Harasta (former ELF.RC chairman) was in charge.There was a story that the ELF had also killed people in Maymine Seray in the 1970s

In 1975 Seyoum was appointed as political commissioner of ELF’s administrative Unit 10 (Akele-Guzai)

Excrept from Responses to He And His Objectives February 13, 2012 by []
  • Tesfa says:

    Hello Awate team!

    Yes, I consider still the awate website as the best among the Eritrean website. But this article is extremely biased and very fsr from the reali8ty we all exercised during our childhood!!!! How can you write “… Nehnan Elamanan came with allegations of grisly murders committed by what it called the “Jihadist” ELF against Christians; and after more than forty years, the allegations still circulate as truth among Isaias’ supporters. With time, the unsubstantiated allegation became urban legend, elevated to a myth, and further deepened the mistrust among Eritreans and to this day continues to divide Eritreans. …” The truth is: ELF was even worse than the jihadist. I myself had an explainable fear from ELF. They have slaughtered mostly christiens from the highland; the sistr of my grand mother was burned wiht her full assets. I participated as a teenager the funeral day of the beloved aunt of my father. The most interesting thing is, she was a famer who could neither write and read – just a very simple woman! This is only the pick of the berg/mountain.

    I write this fact even if I hate existing regime in Eritrea. Facts remain facts!!!

    You could have reasoned it out only as a starting and difficult initial phase of our struggle like every START made ELF many failure . Otherwise you go the risc to degradate the reputation you have earned.

  • Wedimerhay says:

    I always enjoy’s articles from long time, but this article seems to me a bit favouring the ELF. The ELF was responsible for as much evil as Issayas did. The number of people slaughtered by the ELF and thrown in the fox hole (Gudgad wekaria) are too many not to mention how much our mothers have suffered under their liberated eara, the amount of confiscated properties (land and live stock).
    We all hate the current governmnet as it denied us the basic human rights and destroying our country economically, socially and politically. We have a purpose to attain ” A free Eritea were Eritreans live freely as long as they are Eritreans”. As much as we want this, we cannot distort history to suite us now for the current situation.
    It is now a dream that ELF was killing people using a knife. It is a reality that we have experienced in our neighbourhood. It is real that ELF has confiscated belongings. It is true that ELF depended on our mothers to live from day to day and they used force. It is true that ELF created many conflits in a previously peacefully coexisting communities.
    No dought the Nhanan Elamanan document is a destructive document, this article is also hurting as it try to justify the evils of the ELF that has affected many families lives permanently.

    I think let us not change history the exact the same way the Isaya regime did because it can weaken our struggle for democracy.
    With the short time that I have my emphasis is that the evils of both ELF and EPLF are beyond excusable and in an unreasonable magnitued.
    My advice to the Awate team is that, during struggle, many Moslim and Christian families were affected. The memory is not faded as it was hurtfull at family and country levels. If you are not sure about something rather display the message that is you are sure about

EPLF (Shaebia )

Crime committed against civilians by the EPLF in the 1970s and 1980s

As a consequence of the ELF crimes committed against civilians as alleged by the EPLF in the 1960s and 1970s, many people joined the EPLF in the middle of the 1970s. This was because most of them thought that the EPLF was innocent of crimes However, the EPLF was not innocent. All crimes committed by the EPLF were kept secret and not known to all like of the ELF. The only people who had authority to know about the EPLF crimes were those members of the security unit like Teklay Aden and other high-ranking leaders from other departments. Regarding the EPLF crimes against civilians, Teklay Aden revealed that the fascist crimes of the EPLF were not limited to the rank and file. Other victims included innocent individuals who opposed the fascist practices of the organization and boldly exposed it to the masses.

Yosief Ghebrehiwet in his article "Eritrean Independence: Is It Worth All the Sacrifice?" wrote“In the 1980s, the EPLF had taken many underage kids including girls by force. Many of the kids returned home, some ran to the cities, many went to Tigray and others crossed the border to the Sudan. When parents were not able to bring their kids back and hand them to the EPLF, their crops were confiscated. This was during the worst famine of the 1980s. Although the yield of the crops was too little due to the lack of rain, the aim of this inhumane act was to kill the whole family unit by hunger. Many families had no choice but to migrate to Tigray in search of food but Tigray was equally a famine-stricken region during that time.” And this kind of atrocity was not confined to the EPLF, as the following quotation from the same person testifies: “…

As a child growing up in the vicinity of Areza, Seraye (during Jebha time) I had seen enough of the cruelty of this organization. When it had won the war against Kohain, it had confiscated thousands of their livelihoods cattle and brought many of them to our village. The shepherds of the village, including myself, had to take turns in looking after them until they were all slaughtered one by one. When it won the war against Dembelas, it did the same thing. I had seen the Raya Azebo POWs who were captured by Jebha in the seventies perish of disease, hunger and the few lucky ones who had survived were killed in cold blood during the 1978 retreat. I had seen many innocent Eritrean merchants (negado) been arrested and tortured. I had seen people being hanged in Areza … accused of spying for the Ethiopian regime without any proof …”

During the liberation struggle many unarmed civilian also became the victims of the ELF and EPLF. Although all those crimes committed by the members of the National Guard (Halewa Sewra) were kept secretly, Teclai Aden in his interview on December 23,1980 revealed that the EPLF killed hundreds of peasants. He adds that many peasants were taken by the members of National Guard and were executed.

  • Ato Fitwi Tesfazghi & Ogbamicahel Asgodom

    Alem Tesfay (2003) listed name of 16  pensioners from Keren who were executed in late 1978 after taking them to Sahel as prisoners. Among of these prisoners were Ato Fitwi Tesfazghi & Ogbamicahel Asgodom

    • Tewelde Beyne: he was taken for « a short questioning » by the security apparatus of the EPLF in Keren, Eritrea, in August 1978.
    • Fitwi Tesfazghi
    • Woldemariam Kelati
    • Hagos Mana
    • Embāye Ghebru
    • Gebrekal Ghilu'u
    • Tenente ZaidHagos
    • Melake Beraki
    • Ogbamicahel Asgodom [the father of two martyr  Ghidey and Mesgna Ogbamichael]
    • Berhane Hadgu
    • Ghebrehiwet Kinfe
    • Mohamed Omar
    • Negash Sibhat
    • Omar Bekhit

Background information about those prisoners who were taken from Keren by the EPLF in 1978.

Tewolde Beyn (Beyene Asfedai) was taken for « a short questioning » by the security apparatus of the EPLF in Keren, Eritrea, in August 1978. Later he was taken to Sahel, northern Eritrea with the following police pensioners in addition to Idris Mohamed Abdala, alias « Echet Hina » (a Tigre ballad singer known for his pro-ELF songs) were taken to Sahel as prisoners: Embaye Ghebru, Ghebresadiq Ghilu'u, Melake Beraki, Ogbamichael, Fitwi Tesfazghi, Woldemariam Kelati, Berhane Hadgu, Ghebrehiwet Kinfe, Mohamed Omar, Negash Sibhat, Omar Bekhit, Hadgu Mana, Tenente Zaid.
Read more

  Brief background information about Tewolde Beyne Asfedai    

Leteab Tewolde Beyn wrote:

Tewolde Beyn was reputed among the early ELM/mahber-shewate members for having saved many lives from imminent
death or life imprisonment way back in 1959-60 (living witnesses include long-time fighters like Omar Mohamed Yahya, and Omar Haj Idris). It was also reported that a number of ELA fighters were released from prison
cells in Keren by misleading their interrogators with pieces of advicegiven them by my father. (E.g. two fighters in 1964 dared to take the bus from Ghinda to Keren where they were suspected and detained.

They were advised to say that they were water porters in Om Hager and that the callosity shown on their shoulders was not caused by Abu Asheras of jebha but by the heavy water containers they carried at their workplace. My father was so much liked by the fighters that the ELF in 1970 asked the people to give theirvotes for Ethiopian parliamentary elections not to those pro-Ethiopian candidates but to Tewolde Beyn. Among latter-day events mentioned in the
said article was the fact that my father took active part in the resignation of all 23 Eritreans in the Ethiopian parliament after the massacre of many Eritreans at Om Hager in July 1974. That resignation was widely reported in the international press and helped to give not only a much wanted attention to the struggle, but also encouraged many Eritreans to join their revolution.

PS : I would wish that you and other human rights conscious Eritreans encourage Eritrean jurists to help establish a fact finding commission to investigage, at least for the recod, all human rights abuses not only of
the Ethiopians against Eritreans but also of Eritrean organizations against their own people during the past four to five decades. That may help discourage at the present and in the future of any gross violations of human rights by Eritrean political actors, whether they are «legitmate » authorities or « illegal » opposition forces.

Leteab Tewolde Beyn

Source [DEHAI] EPLF's ? short questioning ? Petition for the Release of Reported Prisoners in Eritrea
From: Freweini Ghebresadick (view other messages by this author)* Date: Sat, 21 Aug 1999 17:04:55

  Mr. Berhane Ezekiel 1985 killed by EPLF The second Kunama SDO (Senior District Officer) of Barentu.
A man of courage and total dedication to and commitment for  the welfare and well-being of his Kunama people
on whose behalf had to sacrifice his own life by falling victim of that ruthless Shabia command in the Kunama lan
d. baden-kunama.comi

Dr. Yassin Aberra

ክቶር ያሲን ኣበራ ተቐቲሎም
ስለምንታይ ከ ተቐቲሎም?
መወዳእታ ጥሪ (January) 1991 ኣብ ኣፍደገ ናጽነት ኤርትራ ዝተበጽሔ እዋን እዮም ንገዝኦም እናኸዱ ተቐቲሎም፡፡ ቀተልቶም ከኣ ሃገር ዝቐበጹ ዓሳክር ደርግ ዘይኮኑ ዓሳክር እቶም ብጉልባብ ናጽነት ኤርትራዊ
መንነት ከጽንቱ ዝዓጠቑ እክብካብ ሸፋቱ ሎሚ ብህግደፍ ዝፍለጡ እዮም፡ እቲ መቕተልቲ! ብጉልባብ ጃሱስነት (ሓሳዊ) ናይ ስርዓት ደርግ ክጉልብብዎ ስለ ዝደለዩ ጠቐርቲ ሸፋቱ ኾይኖም እምበር
ዶክቶር ያሲን ሕቡን ኤርትራዊ ብኤርትራዊ እምነቶም ነቕ ዘይብሉ ኣብ መሰረት ኤርትራ ንኤርትራውያን ዝተጨረሓሉ ዘገስገሰሉ ዘበገሰሉ ስድራቤትን ገዛን ተወሊዶም ዝዓበዩ መን ምኻኖም እቶም ዘርከብናሎምን
ዝፈለጥናዮምን ዓውን ግትርን ኢልና እንምስክረሎም እዮም፡፡ “ኣለና እወ ናይ ብሓቂ ኣለና”
ኣብ ዘመነ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ!
ኣብ ኤርትራ ኣሽንኳይዶ ምሁር ኣብ ዝለዓለ ጸፍሕታት ትካላት መንግስቲ ዝሰርሕ እሞ ንቃልሲ ኤርትራ ዓንቃፊ ክበሃል፡ ዓርኪ ዓስከር ኢትዮጵያ ኢኻ ተባሂሎም ዕለታዊ ተዛሕዚሖም እዮም እሞ ዶክቶር ያሲን
ዕስኩር ስርዓት ኢትዮጵያ ነይሮም እንተዝኾኑ እንታይ ንሰላሳ ዓመት ዝኸውን እዋን ንምቕታሎም ኣጸበየ
?Read moreእታ መፍትሕ ኣብ ኢድና እያ ዘላንጠቐመላ ከይመረተት እንከላ [Source]

To conclude, during the liberation struggle thousands of civilians not only became victims of the
Ethiopian government but also victims of the ELF and EPLF. There are many stories about crimes committed against the civilians by both fronts (ELF and EPLF). Unfortunately many stories are not recorded apart from a few reported by Human Rights Watch 1991; Megesteab 2005; Yonas Aray 2005; Teklay Aden 1980; Freweini Ghebresadick 1999; Alem Tesfay 2004.

Former revolutionary leaders who are serving in the Eritrean government or in the Oppostion leaders were also collaborated indirectly with the enemy in committing crimes against the Eritrean people, evidence of this can be seen below.

Despite the Ethiopia army killed many civilians from Arafali, Atshoma, Ona etc. and burnred their villages between 1967 and the early 1970s, Issays held secret talks with the CIA in order to eliminate the ELF which he achieved in 1981. Regarding his secret meeting with the CIA, Amar(2004) states that Wodi Giorg , who was at the meeting with Issays and Col. Mamuzer Copland on 2 Jun 1981ly 1970(note), had an interview with the local press in Addis which appeared in an Amharic newspaper called "Senay", volume 1 number 3 of February 1993. A short while later, Wodi Giorgio was shot dead in front of his Addis Ababa house in order to keep the meeting secret. Weldemariam Abraham also added that Asrate Kassa had wanted to get rid of Haile Selassie and wanted a military wing of his own. He did not trust the Ethiopian military and wanted his own secret army started by Isayas who was entrusted by the Americans and Israel, to Eritrean front. And in the other hand bring chaos in the Eritrean struggle, bringing animosity between Christians and Muslims, and in regionalism.
There are still fresh in the memory of every  Eritrean the events of May, 1988 when the Ethiopian forces crushed to death  400 people, mostly women and children when their tanks rolled into the village of She'eb. Despite this atrocity was committed by the Mengistu government, from late 1986 until about 1989 the ELF leader Abdella Idris was involved in negotiating with the Mengistu government (De, Waal 1991:252) As the progress of this could be the Mengistu regime in late 1988 met with five former ELF members (who claimed to represent 750,000 Eritreans) to accept their proposal for the creation of an autonomous Eritrean region in the predominantly Muslim lowlands.

During the liberation struggle many innocent liberation fighters and civilians became victims of the former revolutionary leaders who are currently serving in the Eritrean government or in the Opposition. The opposition leaders are not innocent of crime. They like the PFDJ leaders whom they are accusing of committing crimes against the Eritrean people since 1991. are also guilty.

Excrept from Responses to He And His Objectives February 13, 2012 by [] Mahmud Mohammed says Thanks Awate! the darkest side of our struggle history must be revealed regardless of who committed what but it is very crucial to teach our kids about their history. History should not be distorted or inclined but the truth must be said on heaven's fall. Esyas is not the only criminal we have had however there are many hidden criminals who slept on Eritrean blood. Some have committed mistakes without knowing or forced to do by their superiors, some have joined the struggle for personal interest and as servants of the foreigners, some were deeply mislead by their bigoted commanders who were motivated by regional and religious points of view. However, there must be a balance between the incidents happened and the golden age lost in serving Eritrea and Eritreans. We have to look on the positive sides too!



The author also appeals to all former members of the ELF and EPLF who survived the war to tell the public the truth about the ELF and EPLF leadership’s crimes against civilians.

            EPLF/PFDJ crimes after liberation

             © 2004-2017. Contact: