ABBAI GULGIA: Azm.) b. in Tukul (Zaid Akkolom) 1906. On 26 March 1952, he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Zaid Akkolom, Dembelas, Missiam, Kunno Reda and Midri Felasi districts for Unionist Party.
ABRAHA BAHTA: - (Aite) b. in Saganeiti 24-05-1924.
ABRAHA MEBRAHTU: - (Kegn.) b. in Asmara 1922, (son of Azmach Mebrahtu Gubsa from Dekki Sheh’ai).
ABRAHA OGBAZGHI: - (Kegn.) b. Addi Quala 1900.
ABRAHA SABAM: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) he had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in lowland perfected the systematic terrorization of both Italians and Muslims.
ABRAHA WENDERAS: - (Ato) Rep. Keren Division.
AFEWERKI ABRAHA: - (Ato) Tzelot. The father of Isaias Afewerki President of Eritrea.
ALEMSEGHED BELAI: - (Lij) Rep. Akele Guzai Division.
AMAN ANDOM: - (Brigadier General)
ARAIA GEBREMEDHIN: - (Aite) b. in Asmara 1915, (son of Fit. GHEBREMEDHIN Berhane)
ARAIA MENELIK: - (Deghiat)
ARAIA WASSIE: - (Deghiat) b. in Keren 27-11 1906, (son of Wassie Fanta from Weghera) Aged 45. Son of an Amhara immigrant to Keren. Served under the Italian Government as an interpreter in Eritrea, Somalia and finally in Ethiopia where he was personal adviser to Graziani. Became very unpopular in Addis Ababa because of his association with Graziani and was later transferred to Gondar. Since the occupation has been one of the principal Unionist Party leaders and is on intimate terms with Colonel Negga Haile Selassie. He is a wealthy man and has a number of commercial interests.
AREFAINE AWALOM: - (Notorious Shifta) Escaped from Jail 29-01- 1948.
ASFAHA KAHSAI: - (Deacon /Bashai) b. in Addi Ghedda /Tzilima, 1895, (son of Kentiba Kahsai Zeru, Chikka Addi Ghedda). On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Tzilima district for Unionist party.
ASFAHA WOLDEMICAEL: - (Fit. /Bitwedded) b. in Akhrur (Tzenadegle) 1914, prominent founder and member of the unionist party, elected as chief Executive of the Eritrean Government after Tedla Bairu Ogbit resignation. Between 1932 and 1937 he served the Italian colonial troops as interpreter. After his return from Rome, Asfaha became a senior native serving Italians in Ethiopia. In 1941 he moved from Gondar to Addis Abeba and became an employee of the Crown. In 1944 he was one of the leading members of ANDENET party (The Unionist Party). In 1953 he became vice representative of the Crown in Eritrea. As ANTI FEDERALIST PRO-ETHIOPIAN he served the Crown well. Under his administration Eritrea became a colony of Ethiopia.
ASGHEDOM MAASCIO: - (Blatta) b. in Halai 14-02-1907
ASKALEMARIAM YEMANE: - Leader of the Women’s Unionist Party. (Throughout the federation period, a committee of three women led this women’s branch)
ASMEROM WELDEGHIORGHIS: - (Graz.) b. in Addi Quala 22-09- 1920, son of Deghiat Weldeghiorghis Kahsai. On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Mai Tzada and Addi Quala districts for Unionist party.
ASRESSEHEI BERACHI: - (Deghiat)
ASRESSEHEI EMBAYE: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) he had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in highland perfected the systematic terrorization, killing and mutilating the defenceless Jeberti of SERAE, Saho of HAZOMO and Kunama of TOKOMBIA area. ASRESSEHEI assisted by the Ras Menghesha family he become a prominent UNIONIST SHIFTA. In the late 1940 his band murdered the B. M. A. - appointed district chief, Azmach BERHE GHEBREKIDAN of Guhcia’. After the annexation of Eritrea with Ethiopia he was promoted and was ordered to the head of the Judges in the Eritrean High Court. He survived several attempting on his life by the E. L. F.
ASRESSU BERACHI: - (Deg.) b. in Asmara 1892
ASSEFAW GOBRU: - (Blatta) b. In Asmara 15-5-1917, (son of Gobru Tuku)
BERHANE GHIRMATZION: - (Deg.) The Maikelai Aliet according Trevaskis.
BAHTA HABTEGHIORGHIS: - (Graz.) b. in Saganeiti 1896.
BARIAGABER BELAY: - (Fit.)
BAHTA DESTA: - ( Keshi / Prest) b. Senafe.
BECHIT OGBAMICAEL: - (Kentiba) b. in Gheleb 1910, (son of Ogbamicael Tesfankiel, Adde Abrehe/ Mensa)
BEIENE BERACHI: - (Deghiat) b. Amba Derho (Karneshim) 1887, (son of Ras Berachi Bechit) President of Unionist party from 1947.Coptic was formerly head of the first town ward of Asmara and district chief of Saharti, Lamza and Wokerti but was deposed in 1948 for an incitement to disorder at a political meeting. Eldest son (by first marriage) of the late Ras Baraki and now head of that large and influential family.
BEIENE MAASCIO: - (Blatta) b. in Halai (son of Deghiat Maascio Zeweldi)
BEIENE MOSAZGHI: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) he had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in highland perfected the systematic terrorization of both Italians and Muslims (SAHO AND JEBERTI of Akele Guzai). On the roadblock no. 12, a few kilometres from Saganeiti and Addi Khayeh road, the police faced him; BEIENE and his brother FESSAHAIE MOSAZGHI were killed in the battle. The fact that one of the policemen who killed them was an Italian added fire to anti-Italian SHIFTA activities. The MOSAZGHI defiance had now become a personal vendetta primarily directed against Italians, and was to further terrorize the Italian community in Eritrea. Defenceless Italian were killed and mutilated in the Mai-Habar area, and their concession farms were looted or burned. Before long, however, SHIFTA were attacking inside Asmara. Two another of the MOSAZGHI brothers with their band increased their vendetta activities. In the second week of April 1949, a restaurant frequented by Italians in the suburb of Asmara was bombed and burned to the ground, while in the same evening another band killed an Italian at his home in front of his wife and children. The MOSAZGHI bros. Looted and destroyed many Jeberti property in Asmara.
BEIENE MEBRAHTU: - (Graz.) The Chieftain of Lamza Saharti & Weqerti.
BEIENE ZAHLAI: - b. in Toconda (AkeleGuzai) (son of Deghiat Zahlai)
BELAI NEGUSSE: - (Deg.), b. in Beracna (Indadashim) 1896. (Son of Deghiat Negusse). From 1947 he served as the President of Mahber Fikri Hager Senafe town. On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Senafe, Indadashim, Addi Gulti, Zeban, La’lai Arguf, Tahtai Arguf, Debrimela and Labhale districts for Unionist party. He accompanied a committee in its visit to the King Haile Sellasie and the head government in Addis Abeba (1950)
BELAI TEKIE: - (Ato) (Hamasien Division).
BERACHI HABTEZGHI: - (Deghiat) b.
BERACHI KIDANE: - (Barambaras) b. in Addi Felesti 1874.
BERACHI TEKLETZION: - (Deg.) b. in Addi Kefelet (Kebesa Tchiwa) 1874.
BERACHI TESFAI: - (Deghiat)
BERHE ASBEROM: - (Deg.) Elected to the Eritrean assembly.
BERHE GHEBREHIWET: - (Ato) Hamasien Division
BERHANE GHIRMATZION: -
BERHANE ZERU: - b. Himberti 1898, son in law to Deghiat Berhe Tesemma of (Zeazega)
BERHANE TEKLE: - (Bashai) Rep. Serae Division.
BOKRETZION MUHTZUN: - ( Keshi / Priest) b. Anseba
CAHSAI ADHANOM: - (Priest/Keshi) b. in Keren 1917.
CAHSAI BERHANE: - (Kegn.) b. in Addi Shium Andui (Debub Serae) 1895.
CHELATI WOLDEMICAEL: - b. in Addi Bachel (Haddegti) 1914.
CHIDANEMARIAM CASSA: - (Bishop of Tibari) b. in Hebo (Tzenadegle) 21-04-1886 died 01-08 1951.
CHIDANEMARIAM GEBREMESKEL: - (Ras) b. in Areza 1862. Honorary President of the U. Party in 1947. Ninety years of age. The most important chief in the Serae and the descendant of the principal ruling family in this area. Fought at the battle of Adowa in the Italian army. Despite his age he has taken an active part in politics, being honorary president of the Unionist Party.
CHIFLAI TESFAGIORGHIS: - b. Maado (Tecala) 1897 also knew by Chiflai Deggen and Chiflai Muraglia.
DAWIT OGBAZGHI: - (Ato)
DEMSAS WOLDEMICAEL: - (Blatta). On 1956 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Asmara for U. P.
DESTA ACCAL HAILU: - (Sciumbash) b. Addi Abun (Tigrai) 1877
DIMITROS GHEBREMARIAM: - (Priest “Liqekahnat”) b. in Maichew (Areza) 1900, elected on 26 March 1952 to the Eritrean Assembly, representing the Medri WodSebera and DekkiTaes district for the Unionist Party. (He served as ASKER and Secretary for Ras Chidanemariam Ghebremeskel and died in Addis Abeba).
SHIFTA provocation, assisted by intimidation by the Keshi DIMITROS’ Coptic Church, was scoring predictable results. People in the villages in rural Eritrea who harboured anti–Unionist sentiment were intimidated and forced to stay away from the Un Commission. In several instances where organized groups of peasants tried to go see the Commission, armed SHIFTA erected roadblocks and prevented the petitioners from reaching their destination. These subversive acts were supplemented by the hegemonic influence of the Abyssinian Great Tradition. All those Abyssinian Eritrean who opposed Ethiopia were called anti-Christians. The Head of the Eritrean Coptic Church and its ruling hierarchy, thereby using religion as a political weapon, The UN Commission concluded that the “clergy movement, led by KESHI DIMITROS and BLATTA DEMOZ, was conducting an intermittent negative campaign against the minority of Coptic Church leaders who were opposed to the Unionist cause. By 1950-1951 the Abuna was rarely consulted by the Ethiopian government regarding the future of Eritrea. Furthermore, the Ethiopian Crown was cultivating the support of KESHI DIMITROS of Serae (…’ AB KIDMEKHA ZELO ISHOKH KEITZREKHA DEMBE AIBTZHIN IYU!). His Son Mr. Yoftahe Dimetros served as Ethiopian Ambassador in Israel in the Derg Government, now he is working as General Secretary of the Holy Synod of the Eritrean Orthodox Church (EOC)
ELSABET TEWELDEMEDHIN: - Leader of the Women’s Unionist Party. (Throughout the federation period, a committee of three women led this women’s branch)
EMBAYE HADERA: - (Police inspector) Later S. D. Officer and Governor of Serae Province in The Haile Selassie Government. Embaye Hadera was executed in the late of 60’s by Elf. Semere Russom the Eritrean Education Minister is his brother son
EMBAYE HABTE GHEBREAMLAKH: - (Police inspector)
EMBAYE HABTE MEL’LAK: - (Ato) b. 27-12-1911 in Keren (Bet Tarke Iddaccal Bogos). He became prominent founder of the Unionist Party o of the western lowland province. On 26 March 1952, he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing the U. party for the population of Bet Tarke Keren
EPHREM TEWELDE-MEDHIN: - (Balambaras)
FESSAHA WOLDEMARIAM: - elected 1956 representing Asmara for U. P.
FESSAHAIE MOSAZGHI: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) One of the four MOSAZGHI brothers
FISSAHATZION HAILE: - Secretary for Economics (1952)
FASIL HABTU: - (Azm.)
GHEBRE BERACHI: - (Azm.) b. in Asmara 05-05-1902. (son of Ras Berachi Bechit.
GHEBRE TESFAZION: - (Shifta)
GHEBREANENIA KIDANE: - (Keshi / Priest) b. Anbelka Seni (One of the four influential priests were special targeted by Abuna MARKOS).
GHEBREIESUS WOLDEGABER: - (Deghiat) b. in Saganeiti 1888.
GHEBREIOHANNES TESFAMARIAM: - b. in Daro Kaulos 1911. (Director of the weekly news paper Ethiopia from 05-05-1951). He was the secretary of the U. Party Asmara Branch.
GHEBREKRISTOS WELDEMICAEL: - (Deg.) b. in Akhrur (Tzenadegle) 1916, prominent founder and member of the unionist party. His brother Asfaha WELDEMICAEL was elected as Chief Executive of the Eritrean Government. As his brother he was ANTI FEDERALIST PRO-ETHIOPIAN he served the Crown well. Under his brother administration Eritrea became a colony of Ethiopia. He served as judge in the Royal Ethiopian High Court. His daughter Melkamayehu, a member of E P L F she is still serving in high position of the Eritrean Government
GHEBREHIWET TESFAI: - (Bashai) (Hamasien Division).
GHEBERMARIAM KASSA: - (Fit.)
GHEBREMARIAM T.: - (Graz.) Hamasien Division
GHEBREMARIAM CASSA: - (Fit)
GHEBREMEDHIN ASSIEL: - (Police officer) b. in Zeazega 1919.
GHEBREMICAEL DERZO: - (Ato) (Serae)
GHEBREMEDHIN BERHANE: - (Fit.) b. in Akhrur 1891.
GHEBREMESKEL HABTEMARIAM: - (Ato)
GHEBREMESKEL WOLDU: - (Fit.) b. in Akhrur 26-09-1907. He descends one side from Shium Hadgom Wodd Aradom Tzenadegle and on the other side from his mother “Ungurgur” Agudi Addi Abage’ (Agame). From December 1946 he was the prominent founder and member of the Executive Central Committee Unionist Party. A Catholic from Seganeity (Acrar). Under the Italian Government was an interpreter of the first grade. After the British occupation he interested himself in politics and became the first president of the Unionist Party. Although he has considerable influence with the more youthful elements of the Unionist Party, his comparatively humble origins proved a handicap and in 1946 he was replaced by Tedla Bayru who had the full support of the influential Hamasien section within the party. Has been critical of Colonel Nega Haile Selassie's interference in local politics and has generally taken an independent line. In 1950 he joined the Liberal Unionist Party and became secretary of the Asmara branch of the party. An intelligent man but a habitual drunkard
GHEBREMESKEL TEEBYO: - (Keshi / Nubreid) at young age, GEBREMESKEL TEEBYO was recognized as a gifted student. Around 1910 GEBREMESKEL left Eritrea to study at the famous Coptic College in Gondar, Ethiopia. Here he was spotted by a priest who was later to become head of the prestigious St. George (Trinity) Church in Addis Abeba. He was then called by the ABUNA to Addis Abeba, where he becomes second in command of St. George Church. When the Italians invaded Ethiopia, the ABUNA went into exile and GHEBREMESKEL assumed the leadership of the church. From here was able to negotiate with the Italians and save his church from burning. As a result he won respect and admiration from the population of Addis Abeba. With the steady development of Eritrean nationalism and Ethiopian further isolation, the Crown wanted the services of this distinguished individual. GHEBREMESKEL was promoted to NUBREID and was ordered to head AXUM, while at the same time becoming a financier of the SHIFTA movements in Eritrea
GEBRESELLASIE TAMENU : - (Kegn.)
GHEBREZGHI GUANGUL HAYETT: - (Deg.) b. Addi Quitta (Mezhe) 1895. One of the prominent founder and member of the supreme council of unionist party and member of the Eritrean Assembly representing Addi Quitta, AkeleGuzai district.
GHEBRU NEGUSSE : - (Kegn.)
GHERENKIEL GURMU: - Writer and journalist for Ethiopia weekly newspaper.
GHERESELLASIE WORKENE: - (Azm.) b. Adua 1875.
GHERESELLASIE GEREZA: - The pied piper who became the president of the Unionist Party during the Federation with Ethiopia, was then the top leader of the ANDENET, and was in constant contact with Col. Nega Haile-Sellasie and Tecola Ghebremedhin and others Ethiopian officials (suspected in the murder of the” Father of the Martyrs” Abdulkader Kebire. See Bigelow to Secretary of State, Control #1470, April5, 1949.
GHERGHIS HAPTIT (GIORGIO): - (Azm.) b. in Akhrur 1-07-1892.
GHERESELLASIE TAMMENU: - (Kegn.)
GHILAGABER WOLDEGHIORGHIS: - (Aite) b. in Mekarka (Dembezan/Hamasien) 1918.
GHILA MICAEL BAHTA: - b. in Asmara.
GOITOM GHEBREZGHI: - (Police officer/ General)
HABTE TESFAMICAEL: - (Bashai). On 1956 he was elected to the E. A. representing AkeleGuzai district for U. P.
HABTEMARIAM NUGURU: - (Abba) b. in Keren 1922. Elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing the Anagir, Afelba, Arfe Grotto, and Quolla Serae District for the Unionist Party.
HADGEMBES KUFLOM: - (Kegn.) b. In Gura’ 1895.(son of Bashai Kuflom Gilai) elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Dekki Sheh’ai, Dekki AdMacom, Mereta Qeih district for U. P.
HADGU GHILAGABER HAPTEZION: - (Cavaliere later Deghiat) b. in Zighib (Saharti/Hamasien) 29-10-1894. On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly, representing the Saharti, Lamza, Seleste Weqerti, Mai habar, Nefasit, Embatcalla district for the U. party. Executed by elf in 1967 in Asmara at Bar Esposito.
HAGOS WEDI DEKEMHARE: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) he had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in Serae and Gash perfected the systematic terrorization both Muslims JEBERTI SERAE AND THE KUNAMA.
HAGOS GHEBRE:- (Deg.) b. in Keren 1896. (He was born to Kentiba Ghebre of Melazanai- Shioatte Anseba).
HAGOS REDDA: -
HAGOS SEREKE: - (Azm.) Hamasien Division. (The Shifta From Anseba)
HAGOS TEMNEWO: - Former Banda Commissariato identified as organizer and leader of all recent Shifta activity Keren Area still in fight but is known to have acted on instruction of the Unionist Party elements. For further details see” WO 230/242; 24/12785”
HAILE TESFAMARIAM: - (Azm.) b. in Addi Quala 1892. (He was born to Deghiat Tesfamariam Tesemma). He became of the prominent founder and supporter of Unionist Party of who’s was president of Serae branch. Sixty-five years of age. Formerly chief of Mai Tzada. Dismissed for incompetence in 1943 and replaced by Dejach Woldegherghis Kahsai. Has many connexions in the Tigrai and is persona grata at Addis Ababa. President of Serae branch of the Unionist Party. A sly intriguer who is suspected of instigating shifta activities in the Serae for political and personal reasons
HAILE TUCCU: - (Blatta) b. in Toconda 1908. (He served the transport company S. A. T. A. E. & S. A. A. N. E. as general director.
HAILE NEGUSSE: - (Azm.) b. Assetah 1898, from Azmach Negusse Tesfayohannes.
HAPTEZGHI OGBAZGHI: - (Blatta) b. in Asmara 28-09-1917. (He was born to Blatta Ogbazghi Guangul Kantiba Habtai Guangul the chieftain of Haddish Addi/Dekki Digna). On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Haddish Addi- Dekki Digna district for U. P.
HAREGOT ABBAI: - (Fit. Later Deg.) b. in Asmara 7-05-1909. (He was born to BahreNegasi Abbai Habtetzion whose family traces from Geza Ashme’e). Fit. HAREGOT Abbai was, as noted earlier, a founding member of the original Mahber Fiqri Hager and made a great deal money from public transportation business between Asmara and Massawa. A shrewd and capable politician and businessman, he later became identified, through association and marriage, with the Ethiopian royal family and with leading members of the Shoan aristocracy. He became of the prominent founder and supporter of the Unionist Party of whose Supreme Council was a general secretary until 1946. On 26 March 1952, he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly, representing the Kebabi, Dekki Sheh’ai, for the Unionist party. HAREGOT Abbai had a near-monopoly of public transportation in Eritrea in the late 1940s. During the Haile Sellasie period, he became mayor of Asmara, the capital of Eritrea. His son, Seyum HAREGOT, a graduate of Harvard Law School, was a cabinet minister in Haile Sellasie’s government. With the coming of the Derg in 1974 he was imprisoned and later sent into exile. The Military Government the Derg imprisoned Deghiat HAREGOT Abbai from 1975 in Addis Abeba.
ISSAYAS GHEBRE SELLASIE: - (Col./GENERAL) Graduating from Swedish Mission School and went to Ethiopia in the late 1920s to pursue his education. In the early 1930s Emperor Haile Sellasie had opened the Holeta Military Academy where Issayas became a student. When the Italians invaded Ethiopia and Haile Sellasie went into exile, Issayas stayed in the country and distinguished himself as anti-Italian guerrilla leader. Upon Haile Sellasie’ return, Issayas became a high-ranking officer in the Ethiopian armed forces. In 1943 when the Tigrai Woyane revolt broke out, because of his field experience he was sent to Tigrai as second in command. But his effort to crush the rebellion came to no avail as he captured by the rebels. After his realise he chose to go back to Asmara, Eritrea.
With the steady development of Eritrean nationalism and Ethiopia’s further isolation, the Crown wanted the services of this distinguished individual. Col. Issayas was made leader of Adua as well as military head of SHIFTA activities in Eritrea. In Adua was also located a hospital where wounded Eritrean SHIFTA were hospitalised. It is form this rear base that Ethiopia’s political crime against Eritrea was to continue. The provisional military government of Ethiopia killed General Issayas in 1975. His daughters ABNET and SABA were prominent members of the E. P. L. F. and ABNET is still serving in high position of the Eritrean Government.
IDRIS OMER KEKIA: - b. in Hirghigo 1923. Member of Supreme Council of the U. P. and from 1946 he served the party as casher.
YOSEEF MUHTZUN: - b. in Keren ( from Zaul).
MAASCIO BEIN: - (priest/ Keshi) Rep. Asmara Division.
KIDANE HABTY : - (Deghiat.)
KIDANE MARIAM : - (Balambaras.)
KINFU KIDANE: - (Azm.)
MAHARI WOLET: - (Fit.) b. in Zaghir (Karneshim) 1904. He descends from Ato Abbi from Adiabo. On 26 March he was candidate to be elected to the Eritrean assembly representing Medeber quarter (Asmara) for U. P.
MARKOS (Abuna): - b in Saac (Decamere) 1884 to Ghebreamlakh Tesfazghi. The Italian Government appointed Abuna Markos to his see, and during the Italian period he was a loyal servant of Rome. Under the B. M. A (British Military Administration), Abuna MARKOS became champion of the Ethiopian cause in Eritrea. By 1942 every priest had became a propagandist in the Ethiopian cause, every village church had became a centre of Ethiopian Nationalism, and popular religious feast days such as ‘MESKAL’ (THE FEAST OF THE CROSS) had became occasions for open displays of Ethiopian patriotism. The cathedral, monasteries, and village churches would be festooned with ETHIOPIAN FLAGS and the sermons and prayers would be delivered in unequivocal language. The Abuna’s Epiphany address in 1942 was characteristic.
A MALE CHILD (he then said) IS BROUGHT INTO CHURCH FORTY DAYS AFTER IT HAS BEEN BORN AND A FEMALE CHILD BROUGHT EIGHTY DAYS AFTER BIRTH. NAMES ARE THEN GIVEN TO THEM. WHEN THE CHILD CRIES, IS MOTHER GIVES IT MILK AND IT STOPS CRYING AS SOON AS SHE LIFTS IT HER BREAST. BUT YOU, MY PEOPLE, HAVE YOU A NAME? YES YOU HAVE A MOTHER AND YOU MUST COME TO KNOW HER AS SHE ALREADY KNOWS YOU.
The clerics spoke in parables but their meaning was clear. These activities prepared the way for the development of an organized political movement, which, was brought about in 1942 by Ethiopian intervention and calculated exploitation of Eritrean grievances.
(Abuna Markos has issued an excommunication order forbidding the christening of their sons (sons of pro independence priests), and their being buried as Christians after death). Yet his influence over the Abyssinian Christians in Eritrea was limited. Despite his service to the Crown he was held at arm’s length by the Ethiopian monarch.
By 1950-1951 the Abuna was rarely consulted by the Ethiopian government regarding the future of Eritrea. Furthermore, the Ethiopian Crown was cultivating the support of Keshi Dimetros of Serae, further undermining the influence of the Abuna. But in September 1952, when the major figures in the Eritrean government were announced, the quarrel between the Abuna and his followers and the Ethiopian Crown became public.
The first open protest by Abuna MARKOS and his clergy came when the following Unionist Party members were selected for high offices in the Eritrean government: Ato TEDLA BAIRU, Chief Executive (PROTESTANT); Ato FISSAHATZION HAILE, secretary for economics (PROTESTANT); Ato MESFEN GHEBREHET chief secretary (PROTESTANT); Ato TEKLEHAIMANOT BOKRU, vice secretary (NO PRACTICING COPT). The fact that the Abuna MARKOS and his group were ignored, especially after their long services to the Crown, angered the clergy associated with the Abuna. An open and public demonstration by the clergy protesting this move was made at the end of 1952.
Undeterred, the Crown further undermined the Abuna’s power by appointing him to head the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in the southern province of Ethiopia, Kaffa. He refused to go, but his power was undermined by Ethiopia’s promotion of Keshi DIMETROS from Serae, an archenemy of Abuna MARKOS, as spokesman for the Coptic Church in Eritrea. Totally out of power, Abuna MARKOS died, mysteriously, as a result of a car accident in 1961.
MAMMO GHEBREKRISTOS: - (Deg.) b. In Zeazega Hamasien. He was born to Deghiat Ghebrekristos Habtesullus.
MELLES TESFAI: -
MENGHISTU KIFLAI: - (Police off.) b. in Maado (Serae)
MENGHISTU ISHAQ: -(Memhr) b. in Shuma Negus Tahtai, 9-03.1911. He was born to Ishaq Teweldemedhin.
MESFEN GHEBREHIWET: - b. in Zagher (Karneshim) 1918. On 1952 was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Medeber quarter for the U. P. He served as Chief Secretary 1952-1954.
MIKAEL TEMMANOM: - (Deghiat)
MISGHINNA ALMEDOM: - (Ato)
MISGHINNA GHEBREZGHI: - (Ato)
SIUM MISGHINNA: - (Ato) Baker & Business man active member of unionist party, His Brother Teklab Misghinna former fighter and member of the EPLF now is a Director General in the Agriculture Ministry and member of the Pfdj.
MISGUN BOKHRU: - (Ato) elected 1956.
MI’TELKA: - (Graz.)
NEGA HAILESELLASIE (COL) Born 1912. Shoan. Educated in Ethiopia and in France. Speaks French, a little English. During Italian occupation of Ethiopia went to the Sudan; returned to Ethiopia 1941. Was Secretary-General of Ministry of War and later Director of Public Security. In March 1946 appointed Ethiopian Government Liaison Officer in Asmara. Has notoriously used his position in Eritrea to further union with Ethiopia by means of propaganda and distributions of money. Although he personally directs the affairs of the party, he does not appear to be popular with Eritrean Unionists, particularly as he does not speak Tigrinia. Is a somewhat colourless
NEGA NAIZGHI: - (Ato) (Rep. Serae Division).
NEGASH BARIAZGHI: - (Fit.) (Akele-Guzai Division).
NEGASH BERACHI: - (Graz.)
OGBE HAILE: - (Ato) Serae Division.
REDA GUANGUL: - (Azm.) (Rep. Akele Guzai Division)
SEBAHTU BAIRU: - (Azm.) b. in Monoxeito 1897
SALEH AHMED KEKIA: - (Pascia) b. in Hirghigo 1904. . On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Hirghigo and Zula districts for U. party, and from December 1946 he served as vice president of the Unionist party.
SAMUEL GHEBREYESUS Born 1908 in Hamasien. Educated at Swedish Mission School, Asmara, in Addis Ababa at the American Mission in Japan and at the Lutheran School, Madras. Returned to Ethiopia in 1936; captured by the Italians on suspicion of being involved in Graziani bomb incident and sent to Italy where he was imprisoned for seven years. Released by British in 1943 and returned to Ethiopia. Employed in various ministries, including Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Came to Asmara August 1948 as secretary to Colonel Negga. Speaks fluent English. Not unnaturally is violently anti-Italian
SOLOMON ABRAHA: - (Deghiat) b. in Asmara, in 1944 he was one of the leading members of ANDENET party (The Unionist Party). In 1960s he became Governor of Wollo Province. As ANTI FEDERALIST PRO-ETHIOPIAN he served the Crown well. Under his administration Wollo became the poorest province of Ethiopia. Because of his administration many Wollo people died from hunger. In 1975 was arrested and executed by the military government the Derg. He is the uncle of Issayas Afewerki (The President of Eritrea)
SOLOMON TEKLE: - (Fit /Deg)
SOLOMON HAILEMELOKOT: - (Ato) (Rep. Asmara Division).
SOLOMON MERESAA: - (Ato)
YHDEGO GHEBRERUFAEL: - (Kegn.) (Rep. Serae Division).
TECLE SEREKE: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) He had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in Keren and Elaberet in the lowland.
TECLE WELDEGHEBRIEL: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) the leader of band who raped with impunity Muslim women.
TECLE MARIAM TECLE: - (Keshi/Priest) b. Daraconat
TECLE WELDEGHIORGHIS: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) he had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in lowland perfected the systematic terrorization of both Italians and Muslims.
TEDLA BAIRU UQBIT: - (Memhr) b. in Gheremi Karneshim 27.03.1914. He became one of the prominent founders of the Mahber Fikri Hager and in 1946 the unionist party. On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Karneshim district for U. party, and on 29 April 1952 he was elected as the CHIEF EXECUTIVE of the Eritrean Government. Tedla Bairu became the tireless champion of the Crown’s cause. Under his leadership, the newly founded Unionist party became a subordinate organ of the Ethiopian state. The traditional Eritrean ruling class had found in Tedla Bairu an articulator of their class interests.
TEDLA UQBIT: - (General/ Police forces)
TEKESTE HAILE: - (NOTORIOUS SHIFTA) FROM HAMASIEN
TEGHEGNE MENGHISTU: - (Balambaras)
TEMERTZA OGBAZGHI: - Leader of the Women’s Unionist Party. (Throughout the federation period, a committee of three women led this women’s branch)
TESFAI HABTE: - (Notorious Shifta) Brother, of EMBAYE HABTE then the leading official of the Keren branch of the Unionist Party later became a cabinet minister in the Ethiopian government.
TESFAMICAEL WERKE: - (Graz. / Deg.) b. in Addi Quala 1898. On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean assembly representing Asmara Mercato quarter, and on 1956 (Rep. Serae Division).
TEWELDEBERHAN GHEBREMEDHIN: - (Journalist) b. in Saganeiti 1919
TEWELDEMEDHIN: - ( Azmach)
TZEGGAI TEFERRI: - ( Bashai)
WOLDEGHERGHIS KHAHSAI (Graz. / Deg.) Sixty-fi've years of age. District chief of Mai Tzada (Serae Division). An ex-sergeant-major of the Italian Colonial army. Has considerable influence in the Adi Quala district. A leading spokesman of the Liberal Progressive Party. His politics are not uninfluenced by the fact that his present appointment was made in 1943 after the dismissal of Dejach Haile Tesfamariam, the president of the Serae branch of the Unionist Party. It is no secret that Dejach Woldegberghis is likely to lose his position to Dejach Haile should union with Ethiopia be realised.
WELDEYOHANNES GHEBREZGHI: - (Kegn.) b. in Addi Wegri. On 26 March 1952 he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Addi Wegri and Tera Imni districts for the Unionist party.
WELDEGHEBRIEL MUSA’IZGHI - ()
WELDEMICAEL BERACHI: - (Azm.) b. Addi Felesti. On 26 March he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Sefa’a, Liban, and Habela districts for the Unionist party.
WEREDE BEIN: - (Bashai) b. in Shuma Negus La’lai 1909. On 26 March he was elected to the Eritrean Assembly representing Dembezan /Hamasien district for the Unionist party.
WOLDU WELDEMIKAELE: - (Deghiat.)
ZEROM KIFLE : - ( Azm. / Deg.) b. In Saganeiti 1903. Member of the Central Committee of Unionist Party. Killed by the E. L. F. military command 1967 while he was in one Italian Bar (Bar Esposito).
COMPOSITION OF PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION FOR THE UNION OF ERITREA WITH ETHIOPIA:
ETHIOPIA OR DEATH (ITYOPIA WEI MOT).
“THE UNIONIST PARTY”
A. THE PRESIDENCY
RAS CHIDANEMARIAM GEBREMESKEL, HONORARY PRESIDENT.
DEGHIAT BEYENE BERACHI,PRESIDENT.
PASHA SALEH AHMED KEKIA, VICE PRESIDENT.
B. THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE
FIT. GHEBREMARIAM CASSA
KEGN. GEBRESELLASIE TAMENU
KEGN. GOBRU NEGUSSE
AZM. KINFU KIDANE
BAL. TEGEGNE MENGUSTU
BLATTA DEMSAS WOLDEMIKAEL
FIT. HADGU GHILAGABER
DEG. HAGOS GHEBRE
BLATTA MEBRAHTU GENETEW
ATO MISGHINNA GHEBREZGHI
ATO SALOMON MERSAA
DEG. BERHANE GHIRMATZION
GRAZ. TESFAMIKAEL WERKE
BASHAI WOLDU WELDEMICAEL
KEGN. HAGOS REDDA
FIT. GHEBREMESKEL WOLDU
AZM. GHEBREMIKAEL GURMU
BASHAI TZEGGAI TEFERRI
AZM. ZEROM KIFLE
DEG. ARAIA WASSIE
C. THE SECRETARIAT
ATO TEDLA BAIRU, SECRETARY
SAID AHMED HAYOUTY, VICE SECRETARY
FIT. TAHA ADEM, TREASURER
FIT. HAREGOT ABBAI, VICE TREASURER
by J. Y. Aberra.
(The composition of ANDENET PARTY is taken From the “Eritrea Weekly News,” March 8, 1947).
- ALDO PUGLISI - CHI E’? DELL’ ERITREA Dizionario Biografico 1952 Agenzia Regina - Asmara
- G. K. N. TREVASKIS - ERITREA - A COLONY IN TRANSITION: 1941 – 52 OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON - NEW YORK – TORONTO 1960
- Dr. JORDAN GHEBRE-MEDHIN - PEASANTS AND NATIONALISM IN ERITREA
A CRITIQUE OF ETHIOPIAN STUDIES ISBN: 0-932415-38-5
- Dr. TEKESTE NEGASH - ERITREA AND ETHIOPIA THE FEDERAL EXPERIENCE - Nordiska Africainstitutet, UPPSALA 1997